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Linda S. Flower

Professor of Rhetoric
Department of English
Co-Director, Center for University Outreach
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
(412) 268-2850

Education | Research | Publications | Recent Courses Taught


B.A. English & French Simpson College, 1962-1965

Ph.D. English Rutgers University, 1972 [Return]

Major research interests

My early work concentrated on studying cognitive processes in writing and bringing a strategic, problem-solving approach to writing instruction. Motivated by the need for a more integrated social-cognitive approach to writing, my recent research has focused on how writers construct negotiated meaning in the midst of conflicting internal and social voices. Concerned with the logic of the learner, I studied negotiated meaning making in school settings in which students are learning new literate practices, and in inner city community settings in which teenagers and adults are working across cultural differences. Out of this has grown a new body of research in intercultural rhetoric and education for community consequences [Return]

Selected Publications

Flower, L., V. Stein, J. Ackerman, M. J. Kantz, K. McCormick, and W. C. Peck. Reading-to-Write: Exploring a Cognitive and Social Process. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Flower, L., D. L. Wallace, L. Norris, and R. E. Burnett. (Eds.). Making Thinking Visible: Writing, Collaborative Planning, and Classroom Inquiry. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1994.

Flower, L., and J. Ackerman. Writers at Work: Strategies for Communicating in Business & Professional Settings. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1994.

Flower, L. The Construction of Negotiated Meaning: A Social Cognitive Theory of Writing. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press, 1994.

Flower, L. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writing in College and Community. Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998. (This is a new First Edition of Problem Solving Strategies for Writing, 4th Edition, 1993.)

Flower, L., E. Long, and L. Higgins. Learning to Rival: A Literate Practice for Intercultural Inquiry. in preparation.

Flower, L. "Writer-Based Prose: A Cognitive Basis for Problems in Writing." College English, 41 (1) 19-37, September, 1979.

Haas, C., and L. Flower. "Rhetorical Reading Strategies and the Construction of Meaning." College Composition and Communication, 39, 167-183, 1988. (Recipient of 1989 Richard Braddock Award.)

Peck, W. C., L. Flower, and L. Higgins. "Community Literacy." College Composition and Communication, 46 (2), 199-222, May, 1995.

Flower, L. "Negotiating the Meaning of Difference." Written Communication, 13(1), 44-92, January, 1996.

Flower, L. "Partners in inquiry: A logic for community outreach." In L. Adler-Kassner, R. Crooks, and A. Watters (Eds.), Writing the Community: Concepts and Models for Service-learning in Composition (pp. 95-117). Washington, DC: American Association of Higher Education, 1997.

Flower, L. "Observation-Based Theory Building." In G. Olson and T. Taylor (Eds.), Publishing in Rhetoric and Composition (pp. 163-185). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1997. [Return]

Recent Courses Taught at CMU

Community Literacy and Intercultural Interpretation

Process of Composing [Return]

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